The purpose of eye makeup

The purpose of eye makeup (whether it’s simple black mascara or dramatic contouring shadow) is to make the eyes stand out. When it’s done right, eye
makeup can give the appearance of brighter, more beautiful eyes. Here I cover the basics, like choosing flattering shades and lining the eyes, as well as advanced techniques, like creating a smoky eye and applying false lashes.

 

EYEBROW SHAPE & DEFINITION

You have seen what a difference a great frame can make to a painting. It is the eyebrows that form a frame for your eyes. Beautifully groomed eyebrows make a huge difference. It is possible to transform a face with just tweezers, shadow, a brow brush, and brow gel. A professional will help you find your ideal shape. Once the brows have been groomed, it is easy to do your own upkeep.

All brows benefit from added definition. Brow brushes and combs quickly tame and shape the brow hair. Brow shapers define, control, and shape the brows quickly and easily while adding just a bit of color.

Brow-Grooming Supplies

Brow brush
Brow pencil
Clear brow gel
Tinted brow gel
Brow shadow
Tweezers

Baby scissors for trimming extra-long or curly hair

HOW TO SHAPE BROWS

The start of the brow should follow an imaginary line drawn from the outside of the nose to the inside corner of the eye.

Special Cases

Nonexistent brows

Brows damaged by overtweezing, age, or chemotherapy can be drawn in to look quite natural. Use a pencil the color of original brows, and softly draw in the shape. Layer a complementary color of powder shadow with a brow brush to fill in and soften.

Bare spots

Bare spots can be filled in with light strokes of pencil or with powder shadow. If neither works, try layering both.

Brows too far apart

Brows too far apart can be corrected by filling in missing brow areas with light pencil strokes. Balance the brows carefully. Layer powder shadow on top.

Tadpole brows

Tadpole brows can be reshaped with shadow. Fill them in to create a straight line.

1 – Choose the color that matches your eyebrows and hair.
2 – For a natural option, use eyebrow mascara to create the look of a natural brow.
3 – For more definition, use powder shadow. Start at the inner corner of the brow. Make sure you fill in all the gaps in the brow hair.
4 – Bring the brush to the center, creating an arch, and then turn the brush and go down.
5 – Make sure the brow is long enough.

ASIAN BROWS

Asian women often have sparse brows and need to fill in the brows to match a full head of hair.

1 – Begin at the inside of the brow.
2 – Fill in the brow using a shade that matches it. Use the powder to add density so it matches the hair on your head.
3 – Lightly stroke along the length of the brow.
4 – Continue all the way up the arch, turning the brush as it goes down.
5 – Make sure the brow is long enough.
6 – Use a clear eyebrow mascara to brush up an unruly brow.

TWEEZING

It’s best to get a professional shaping to begin. It’s easier for upkeep. Tweezing after the shower is less painful than at other times.

1 – Begin by cleaning under the arch of the eyebrow. Remove a few hairs at a time, checking the results as you go.
2 – Slowly tweeze, moving inward toward the thickest part of the brow.

Tip eye makeup

Some unruly brows will benefit from trimming long hairs with baby scissors.

Grooming Brows

To fill obvious holes or lengthen overplucked brows, use either pencil alone or a pencil-to-powder method. Using an eyebrow pencil in a shade that matches the brow color, fill with a light, feathery stroke, mimicking the look of hair. If using a powdered eye shadow, choose one that closely matches the hair and brow color.
Using a stiff, flat, angled brow brush, pick up a small amount of color, and tap off the excess. Lightly stroke the shadow from the inner corner of the brow along the entire length to fill it in. Stroke color along the upper edge of the brow to accentuate the arch and give a “lift” to the eye area.

Apply shadow color only to the hair of the brows.

Finish with a coat of clear brow gel to set and tame any unruly brow hairs.

Look at your brows. Does the shape and intensity of color look natural and balance the face? A dusting of powder can soften the color if needed. Use a brow shaper to tame unruly brow hairs.

The Perfect Brow – eye makeup

The start of the brow should be aligned with the inner corner of the eye. The arch is three-quarters of the way across the brow from there.

Applying lip color

Applying lip color is one of the simplest of all makeup steps and is a great way to instantly change a look. Lip color applications range from simple, blotted-on stains to combinations of lip pencil, lipstick, and gloss. The right shade works with the skin tone and complements the natural color of the lips. You can choose from a wide range of product formulas, which include matte, sheer, shimmery, and creamy lipsticks and glosses.

 

COLOR & APPLICATION

Finding the Perfect Shade

To identify the best basic lip color, remove all makeup. The perfect neutral shade—pinky brown, nude, beige pink, rosy brown, pink, chocolate, or blackberry— will generally be close in tone to the natural lip color. The one that looks good on the naked face is the right neutral, everyday, mistake-proof color. It should not look ashy, orange, or pink but like an enhanced version of the natural lip color. Some women might need more color, and the shade that works best without makeup could be bright or dark rather than neutral. You know you have found the right shade when it enhances the skin tone, makes the eyes look brighter, and gives the face a lift.

Once you have identified the right neutral or everyday shade of lip color, you have the basis for selecting more dramatic colors. Most lip colors with the same undertone as the natural shade will look flattering.

 

Formula

MATTE PRODUCTS are dense and last longest. They contain less moisture than other products, so they adhere to the lips and don’t fade as quickly. They are not appropriate for very dry lips.

SEMIMATTE PRODUCTS are less dry than matte products and don’t last as long. They work best on textured or dry lips and give off a soft sheen.

SHEER COLORS are see-through, forgiving, and easy to use.

STAINS provide long-lasting, highly pigmented color.

TINTS, like sheer glosses or balms, protect the lips with moisturizing formulas that usually contain sunscreen.

BALMS are tinted or clear formulas and help soften the lips.

GLOSS STICKS are hybrids, between sheer lipstick and gloss. They add a bit more pigment than lip gloss does but both are see-through and moist.

LIP GLOSSES provide hydration, sun protection, and sheen. This formula is great for making the lips look fuller and for layering on top of other lip colors.

CHUBBY LIP PENCILS will both define lips and provide a creamy matte texture. They are long lasting but can be a bit dry.

LIP LINERS define the lips and keep lipstick on longer when used on the entire lip area. You can see this Lip Liner.

 

LIP COLOR APPLICATION

Mixing and blending are fun but it’s always great to find a color that works directly out of the tube. Never buy a color that the makeup artist has to “fix” to work on you.

 

Troubleshooting: Lip Color

For pale lips use pastel shades, such as pale pink or light beige. Deep tones appear very dark on pale lips, so apply them with a light hand.
Very dark lips look best with blue-toned and deep, saturated lip color. Very pale shades of lipstick can appear gray or ashy on dark lips.

For uneven colored lips that are either dark with pink inside the lower lip or one darker and one lighter lip, you can choose to enhance or conceal the natural colors. Use a light shade that corresponds to the lighter lip color to enhance and bring out the paler lip, or use a deeper shade for a dramatic, full-coverage look. To even out tone, use a sheer, dark lipstick as a base on the lighter area, and then apply regular lipstick.

1- Choose the color and apply it using a lip brush or directly out of the tube.
2– Beginning at one corner of the mouth, apply an even layer of color over the entire lip area.
3- Keep the color within the natural lines of the lips. Use the brush to accurately line the lips.
4- Continue the application to the other corner of the mouth. Always apply the color into the corners on both top and bottom lips.
5- Fill in the bottom lip and any missed areas. Press your lips together to evenly distribute the color.

 

LIP PENCIL APPLICATION

It’s so much easier to match the lip color than to use a dark color that has to be blended.

 

Tips for Long-Lasting Color

Some lip color products are long-lasting, but often those formulas are far too dry. Here are some techniques that provide extended wear to regular lipstick formulas.

Use a lip pencil that matches the natural color of the lips to line and completely fill in the lips. This base helps hold lip color in place. Layer lipstick on top.

Use pencil on top of lipstick to create a waxy barrier.

Blotting lipstick with your finger presses color into the lips and will create a stain that will last.

A bit of powder or blush patted on top of lipstick will keep it on longer.

1- Begin by choosing color that matches the lips or lipstick. Begin lining the top lip.
2 – Extend the line across the top lip.
3 – Define the line across the bottom lip.
4 –Line underneath the lower lip.
5 – Fill in any missed areas and blend.

 

LIP GLOSS APPLICATION

Lip gloss gives a nice shine and can make the lips look a bit fuller. Don’t overdo it by applying too much.

1- Apply gloss to a lip brush or directly to the lips.
2 –Using the brush or your finger, begin at the middle of the lips.
3 –Apply gloss to both the top and bottom lips.
4 –Wipe the edges of the lips when finished.
5 –The lips look fuller and hydrated.

Choosing the Right Powder

Choosing the Right Powder, a light dusting of powder sets concealer and foundation for hours, keeping the skin looking fresh. But, before we start, I advise you to read the article about How does the skin works.

Choosing the Right Powder

Color

Like foundation, powder works only when it is the right shade. For most people, the right powder has a yellow undertone. While the color of the powder will vary to match the foundation, it is the yellow-toned base that will give warmth to the skin. White powder is right only for those with alabaster skin. Translucent powder is not invisible or transparent and only makes skin look ashy.

Texture

Pressed powder is best for touch-ups. It dispenses a small amount and comes in a convenient compact. It is great for those who like a very natural look. Loose powder is denser and provides more coverage. Depending on the application technique, loose powder can be matte or sheer. Not everyone needs powder. Those with very dry skin might use powder only to set under-eye concealer.

Tools

The right tools will supply the perfect amount of powder. Using a powder puff will give powder a smooth, opaque finish. A powder brush will allow a sheer finish. A clean powder brush is also used to remove excess powder after an application with a powder puff. A small concealer brush can be used to apply powder to the corners of the face—under and around the eyes and around the mouth and nose.

Tip

Oily skin can turn powder yellow or orange with time. Sometimes you have to choose a lighter color. To avoid powder buildup on oily skin, use an oil-blotting paper before touching up

FACE POWDER APPLICATION

Some people with very dry skin can skip putting powder on the face. But everyone needs powder over concealer.

  •  Choose the color according to the directions.
  •  Apply powder with either a brush or a fluffy powder puff.
  •  Dust the powder across the cheek and forehead.
  •  Switch brushes to apply powder on top of the concealer. This powder is often lighter in color than the face powder.

Troubleshooting: Powder

After an application of concealer, foundation, and powder step back and observe what you have done. Do the products blend seamlessly and invisibly into the skin? Do you see any darkness or redness? Do not continue with any other makeup until the skin looks the best it can. If you need to improve how the skin looks, stop and look. Can it be corrected with a bronzing product? Or should you begin again using a different product?

Ashy

Warm up the powder color and/or add bronzer.

Orange

Is the skin oily? Did it change? Switch to paler powder and wait to check the results.

Flaky

The skin is too dry.

Cakey

Make sure you have enough moisturizer on the skin. It’s also possible to have too much. The foundation-to-moisturizer ratio may be giving the powder too much grab.

 

BRONZER & SELF-TANNER

Bronzers and self-tanners imitate the healthy look of the sun. They are also used as correctors to warm up the complexion. Applying bronzer is a great way to add a healthy glow all over the face and to even out color differences, especially through the neck. Bronzers work on all skin tones except porcelain because bronzer can make porcelain skin look dirty. Self-tanners can be used on the face and body to add color and hide flaws. When used on the face, apply self-tanner several hours before applying makeup, and don’t forget your neck and ears (and remember to wash your palms with soap and water). Bronzer works as a blush for very dark skin. On all other skin tones, blush should be used over bronzer to add a pop of bright color.

Color: How to Choose

Bronzers work best when the skin looks natural. They can be brown-, red-, blue-, orange-, and sometimes yellow-based.

ALABASTER SKIN (Gwyneth Paltrow skin color) Pinky shimmer or peach
LIGHT (Drew Barrymore) Beigy brown with a bit of pink
MEDIUM (Sienna Miller) Browny pink with only a bit of orange for warmth
MEDIUM-DARK (Jennifer Lopez) Brownish orange
DARK (Vanessa Williams) Brownish red
DEEPEST (Venus Williams) Brownish blue

Formulas

Bronzers are available in flat or shimmering powder, gel stick, and cream formulas. Self-tanners are available in cream, gel, and spray, and are often mixed with moisturizer to get the best results.

POWDER BRONZER APPLICATION

Powder bronzer is the easiest to apply. I use it to add a tint of color to the skin and to correct light foundation or red skin.

  •  Using a large, flat brush, apply a small amount of bronzer for even distribution. Start on the apples of the cheeks.
  •  Next, dust over the nose and chin.
  •  Brush bronzer onto the neck area.
  •  Turn the face to either side to make sure the color is well blended.

GEL BRONZER APPLICATION

This formula is sheer and can correct foundation if necessary, but it is a bit harder to blend than others. It works well on men.

  •  Choose the color to enhance your natural shade. Begin at the apple of your cheeks.
  •  Gently apply bronzer to the cheeks, forehead, nose, and chin. Apply lightly. You can always add more.
  •  Apply bronzer lightly to the areas around the lips, forehead, neck, and ears.
  •  Blend with a clean hand. Add more bronzer if necessary.

 

Tip

Bronzers as Correctors

Some women have more color on their face and chest and less on their neck. Use bronzer to warm up the paler skin on the neck. For those with very red areas, sunspots, or rosacea, bronzers can be used to even out the skin tone.

Self-Tanner

Use self-tanners to add color to any area of the body including the face. It’s an easy way to mask cellulite and veins on the legs. On the face, self-tanner can brighten up a tired complexion. It can be difficult to decide which product to use so it’s important to test in a hidden spot before applying all over.

Self-Tanner Application

Prepare the skin. Always apply self-tanner to clean, smooth, makeup-free skin. It is best to exfoliate first if there are any rough patches. Knees, elbows, and heels are often areas with coarse, dry skin.

Apply a light, even layer. Wait for the color to develop, and then apply a light second coat for a deeper tan. It is easier to build color than to fix mistakes.

Do not forget to apply the product to the neck and ears for a natural-looking result.

Wash your hands immediately after using self-tanner. The product will stain palms and the skin between the fingers.

Wait ten minutes after applying self-tanner to the face before applying any other makeup or getting dressed.

Most self-tanners take an hour or more to develop into a “tan,” so plan ahead.

Troubleshooting: Dark or Streaky Self-Tanning Results

Fade overly dark color by exfoliating the skin in the shower with a washcloth or loofah. Then, thoroughly clean the skin with cold cream or baby oil. Some self-tanners can be removed with lemon juice. Fix streaks by applying an additional light coat of self-tanner on the lightest parts of the skin.

BLUSH

Blush is used to create a healthy, pretty look. Blush can also be used to create the dramatic contouring sometimes seen in fashion shows and the theater.

Pick a skin-type-appropriate formula that you find easy to use. Different formulas can be used, depending on the desired finish or time of year. For the most natural look, match the blush color to that of the cheeks when flushed from exercise. You can also pinch the cheeks and look at the tone; match that color. By holding several shades of blush next to the cheek, you will see which add a lift and can eliminate those that are too dull or orange. The right shade will add a pretty brightness to the face without looking obvious. You can try this set of Blushes & Highlighters, it’s very good.

Technique: Pop of Color

Using two shades of blush, apply your natural color and then add a pop of a brighter color on top. The natural shade looks great at first, but often fades easily. The brighter shade alone is often great for evening, but too much of a contrast for every day. This layering technique offers natural brightness. When using a bronzer, skip natural color and layer the pop color on top. Using a natural shade on top of bronzer makes the cheeks look dirty.

Blush Formulas

POWDER is the easiest formula to use. It blends easily and works on all skin types.
GEL delivers sheer color, but blending is a bit more difficult. It works well for smooth skin.
CREAM goes on smoothly and leaves a dewy finish, which is great for dry skin.
CREAM/POWDER goes on as cream and dries to a long-lasting powder finish. It is best for normal skin.
CHUBBY PENCILS are very portable and easy to blend. They are best for normal to dry skin.
CHEEK TINTS are similar to gels. They go on sheer for a stained look and can be difficult to blend. Tints work only for smooth skin.
POT ROUGE provides blendable color for normal to dry skin types. These products are usually creamy in texture and packaged in pots. They provide a sheer stain on the cheeks and medium coverage on the lips.

POWDER BLUSH APPLICATION

Powder is the easiest blush formula to use. Make sure your brush is totally clean, or it will affect your color choice.

  •  Smile and apply the product to the apple of the cheeks.
  •  Blend toward the hairline, then down to soften the edges.
  •  Blend thoroughly, keeping the most product on the highest part of the cheekbones.
  •  Step back and consider the results. Turn your head to each side. Your face should look absolutely natural and balanced. A powder puff or fingers can be used to soften and correct a heavy application.

Tip

Never use blush on the eyelids as it is too red and will make the eyes look sore and tired.

CREAM & GEL BLUSH APPLICATION

Cream and gel formulas should be saved for smooth skin. Powder formula is better for textured or blemished skin.

  •  Apply over clean skin or foundation. The product can be applied with fingers, a foundation brush, or a sponge.
  •  Use sparingly at first. You can always add more product if needed.
  •  Smile, and apply the product to the apples of the cheeks and up toward the hairline, then down to soften the edges.
  •  Blend thoroughly, keeping the most product on the highest part of the cheekbones.

Troubleshooting: Blush

Blush streaks
Your foundation probably wasn’t powdered, or you’ve used too much moisturizer under the foundation.

Looks flat
Layer cream rouge or balm on top of the color for a glow.

Special Skin Conditions

Special skin conditions. Some faces need more than the basic application of foundation to look fresh and flawless. Others do best with the thinnest layer of expertly blended foundation. In special cases, you will need a skillful hand and specific application techniques. The best makeup artists recognize skin conditions, treat them appropriately, and use the perfect combination of product and technique to make the skin look its best. These product suggestions and techniques for various special skin conditions are basic guidelines. The trick is knowing when the makeup is working and when it needs to be changed. Experimentation is usually needed to achieve the desired results.

But, before we start, I advise you to read the articles about How does the skin works and build your makeup kit: the ultimate guide

 

ROSACEA

A sheer, tinted moisturizer will diffuse redness. Too dense a product can make the face look masklike. Correct with a bronzer.

COMBINATION SKIN

Use moisturizer on areas of dry skin and an oil-absorbing lotion on the T-zone. Use an oil-free foundation all over the face during the summer, consider a more moisturizing formula for the winter. Either formulation can be used on specific areas of the face as needed.

EXTREMELY DRY SKIN

Use rich moisturizer followed by a creamy, moisturizing foundation. Don’t use powder. Balm or oil can be applied lightly on top of foundation.

BLEMISHES

Using a concealer brush, apply oil-free cover stick or foundation to the blemish. Try to match the skin tone exactly. Concealers, which are a shade or two lighter than the face, should not be used on blemishes. Pat the area lightly. Do not rub. Blend into a small area directly around the blemish. Powder to lock the product(s) in place. Continue with foundation.

HYPERPIGMENTATION (IN GENERAL)

Apply a foundation tone like the foundation and onebase concealer two in one or spot concealer a shade lighter than the skin to the affected area with a small brush. A bronzing gel can be blended into the skin starting at the cheek area, working around the face. This will help blend the more pigmented skin. Layer foundation that matches your skin tone over the concealer and/or gel for a flawless finish. Experiment, as concealer alone is often too light and will highlight the spot rather than cover it effectively. Set foundation with powder.

BIRTHMARKS AND PORT-WINE STAINS

Several layers of concealer are needed to cover areas with very dark pigmentation. First, apply a pale yellow–toned foundation or concealer that is three to five shades lighter than the skin tone. Then, apply one that is only slightly lighter than the overall skin tone. Finally, apply a full-coverage foundation that matches the skin tone. Set with powder. Again, experiment to find the right tone and formulations to effectively cover very dark spots.

SCARS AND TATTOOS

It may not be possible to cover scars and tattoos completely. If stick foundation or cover stick does not cover them, try using Covermark, a heavy-duty concealer designed for tattoos and scars. Apply foundation that matches skin tone to the whole face, and set with a powder that matches the skin tone.

UNEVEN SKIN

Skin is sometimes darker through the forehead or through the area of the lower mouth. Two different tones of foundation can be used to match each of the skin tones. Blend well to create an even transition between tones. Bronzer can be used over foundation to even out skin tone. A gel bronzer applied to moisturized skin prior to foundation evens the skin as well. Foundation can then be applied where needed.

FRECKLES

Rather than using a heavy foundation to conceal freckles, let them show through. Use a tinted moisturizer that evens out skin tone, and consider using a bronzer to finish.

ACNE

Start with the right skincare regimen, and use oil-free moisturizers. Apply blemish cover stick with a small, clean brush, or spot conceal with an opaque foundation only in those areas where needed. Use a tinted moisturizer or lightweight liquid foundation to even out the skin tone. The trick is to blend away the discoloration without applying heavy coverage.

WRINKLES

Hydration is the key to creating smooth-looking skin. Ex-foliate regularly with a gentle scrub or an alpha hydroxy acid cream. Use water-infused hydrating ultrarich moisturizers and creamy makeup formulas. For lines around the lips, use a lip balm. Choose a creamy lipstick and matching pencil to prevent feathering.

 

 

The Beauty of Skin Diversity

The beauty of skin diversity is one of the most remarkable things about our world is just how diverse it is, and how it was designed to be this way for no other clear reason other than diversity itself.

Through my work as a makeup artist I’ve had the good fortune to travel around the world and meet women of diverse backgrounds. Through these travels I’ve learned that women of all ethnicities—from Asian to Middle Eastern and Latina—want the same thing when it comes to their skin. They want their skin to look smooth, even, and flawless. Each ethnicity has its own unique (and beautiful) traits and I believe in using makeup that enhances, rather than masks, these traits.

we advise you to read these articles about makeup and skincare:

The beauty of skin diversity – Asian Skin

“Isn’t yellow foundation going to make my skin look more yellow?” is a question that I often hear from my Asian customers when I recommend foundations with yellow undertones. I’ve experimented with countless foundations over the years and I’ve found that yellow-toned foundations always look the most natural—especially on Asian skins.

Many Asian women are prone to and concerned about sunspots, which are the result of sun damage. Aside from wearing sun protection every day, the best way to deal with sunspots is with corrective peach- and pink-toned concealers. Some women have skin with yellow undertones and yellow surface tones. For them, I suggest covering the sunspots with a medium-toned peach corrector. If the concealer is too light in tone it will look gray on the sunspot, so you may have to try a few different tones to find the right one. Other women have skin with yellow undertones and pink surface tones (often the result of skin irritation due to using bleaching agents). The best way to cover their sunspots is with a medium-toned pink bisque corrector. As I mentioned earlier, you’ll know the concealer is too light if it turns ashy when it’s applied on the sunspot. After applying the corrector, gently smooth on a yellow-toned foundation in a shade that matches your skin perfectly.

The beauty of skin diversity – Black Skin

There are many variations in skin tone among black women, so consider the following advice as general guidelines rather than hard and fast rules. Black skin tends to be darker across the forehead and perimeter of the face, and lighter on the middle parts of the face, including the cheeks. The trick when applying foundation is to create a seamless look between the light/golden and dark/warmer parts of the face. Some women like enhancing the golden tones in their skin, and other women like playing up the warmer tones in their skin. It’s a matter of personal preference and it’s important—whether you are doing your own makeup or you are a makeup artist working with a customer—to know which tones you’re going to focus on.

If you want to go golden, choose a tinted moisturizer or sheer foundation that matches the skin on the center of your face. Apply the tinted moisturizer/sheer foundation just on this area, then use a coppery bronzer on the other parts of the face to diffuse the transition between the lighter and darker areas. If you want to go warm, choose a tinted moisturizer or sheer foundation in a shade that falls between the lighter and darker parts of the face. Applying a dark shade of foundation all over the face will look unnatural so the idea here is to tone down the difference between the light and dark areas. Look for a yellow-based foundation that has a bit of orange, red, or blue to it, depending on how deep the color of the skin is. Lighter black skin looks most natural with yellow-based foundation that has a touch of golden orange. Very dark skin looks best with yellow-based foundation that has warm cinnamon tones. In all instances, if the foundation looks ashy or gray on the skin, it’s not the right shade

The beauty of skin diversity – Latin Skin

Latin women generally have golden skin with olive undertones. Some women have pink surface tones (around the nose and mouth, and on the cheeks) due to skin irritation and sensitivity. Latin skin tans very easily, turning a golden cinnamon during summer months. Alternately, in the winter months, skin tends to take on a yellow-green cast.

Bronzer is a great year-round beauty staple for Latin skin because it can be used in the summer to add warmth to your foundation, and in the winter to counteract sallow coloring. Latinas range in coloring from fair to dark so one shade of bronzer does not fit all. If you are fair, choose a bronzer that has pinky-red tones to it. If you are darker, choose a brownish-red bronzer. When shopping for foundation, look for a yellow-based golden shade to complement the natural tones in your skin. Be careful not to go too golden with your foundation, however, because skin will start to look orange.

The beauty of skin diversity – Middle Eastern Skin

Middle Eastern skin is very similar to Latin skin in that it is golden with olive undertones. Many women complain of extreme darkness under the eyes. The best way to cover their purplish-green and brownish-green under-eye circles is with corrective peach- and pink-toned concealers. If you have golden surface tones, use a peach-toned concealer one shade lighter than your foundation to cover your dark circles. If you have pink surface tones (due to sensitivity), start with a peach-toned concealer to cancel out the darkness, then layer on a pink-toned concealer to brighten the under-eye area and make it similar in tone to the rest of the face. In most instances this combination of concealers will offer enough coverage. If you still see under-eye darkness, you may have to layer on a third concealer—a yellow- toned one in a skin-tone-correct shade

The beauty of skin diversity – Multiethnic Skin

Many beautiful mixed-race women need to be open and observant about what makeup looks natural. Basic rules apply, but sometimes these women need multiple products or bronzers as mix-ins to make foundation look great.

The beauty of skin diversity – Multicolor Foundation & Powder Application 

Some dark skins need two colors of foundation and two powders to create the perfect foundation to even out skin tone.

  •  Check if forehead is darker than the rest of the face.
  •  Check the side of the face as well as the forehead.
  •  Apply lightest foundation color around the mouth.
  •  Use lighter color or mix light and dark foundation for cheeks.
  •  Apply warm-color face powder all over the face to set the foundation.
  •  Apply yellow powder on lids.
  •  Apply yellow powder over concealer.
  •  The end result is skin that is even and one tone.

 

 

Preparing The Face For Makeup

Preparing the face for makeup it´s the crucial step you’re missing in your makeup routine. The first step in your skin care routine should be cleansing to remove all the dirt, oil, and impurities from the surface of your skin. we had already talked in the previous post about benefits of cleansing and toning the face and that we advise you to read that post.

The basics – under-eye concealer, foundation and powder – are the secret to a great look. If the basics aren´t right, the makeup won´t be either.  Begin with these steps before applying any makeup.

Analyze the type and condition of the skin. This will determine the combination of skincare and makeup formulas to use. The condition of your skin changes each day, so make an assessment each morning.

Decide which products will improve the skin’s current condition. That includes determining what weight moisturizer(s) are appropriate and whether an oil-controlling gel, a skin-soothing lotion, or a combination of skincare products is needed. Understanding how various ingredients work and the range of options available to you is important.

Choose the right foundation formula for the skin type and condition. Options include stick foundation, lightweight tinted moisturizer, denser tinted balm, fuller-coverage liquid foundation, powder, and oil-free formulas.

Select the correct foundation shade for the skin tone. It is important to select the foundation shade first.

Select an under-eye concealer one to two tones lighter than the foundation, and determine if a corrector is needed.

Select the perfect shades of powder to ensure that makeup stays fresh looking and lasts for hours. Choose a lighter powder to set concealer and that will double as an eye primer, and a deeper shade that works with the foundation tone. Test the color of the powder on the skin after applying foundation.

 

Preparing the face for makeup – CONCEALERS & CORRECTORS

Correctors brighten the darkest areas under your eyes, allowing concealers to both lighten and blend. Concealers should blend into your skin, lightening dark circles and instantly making you look better.

Concealers are the secret of the universe.

While concealers are available that cover tattoos, spots, blemishes, scars, redness, and bruises, most people use a concealer to lighten dark circles under the eyes. Different concealers and correctors are formulated for each specific use. Pick a concealer and, when needed, a corrector designed for each of your problem areas. Under-eye concealers are not formulated for use on blemishes or areas of redness. They are creamier in consistency and lighter than the skin tone. Using under-eye concealer on areas of redness will only highlight the imperfections. Yellow-toned foundation that matches the skin tone is the best way to adequately cover blemishes, scars, and tattoos.

The application of under-eye concealer is the most important step in any makeup routine. Concealer is the one product that, when chosen and applied correctly, can instantly lift and brighten the face. Choose a color one to two shades lighter than the foundation. The skin under the eye is very thin, so the blue of the fine veins just under the surface tend to show through. A light yellow-toned concealer masks this blue discoloration and brightens the skin. For those with alabaster skin, a porcelain-toned concealer will work. Sometimes a stick foundation one or two shades lighter than the face can serve as an under-eye concealer for those who need very little coverage.

Correctors are available for extreme under-eye darkness. When a regular concealer cannot fully lighten the under-eye area, a peach or pink corrector is used to counter the purple or green tone. A regular yellow-toned concealer is usually lightly layered over the corrector to lighten the under-eye area. Occasionally, those with extremely deep purple or green coloration under the eye will not need the layer of regular concealer.

Tips

Some women need between two and four colors that can be mixed and blended to accommodate changes in skin tone under the eye, which can vary with the time of day, amount of rest, and hormones.

Sometimes a corrector is enough to solve the under-eye problem. Rules should be followed, but there should be flexibility for what works where. Sometimes something as bold as a bright pink or peach cream blush will work for very intense darkness.

Preparing the face for makeup – CHOOSING CORRECTOR COLOR

Correctors are for extreme under-eye darkness. If your skin is pale, choose the lightest colors, beginning with bisque or light pink. For deeper skin tones,
choose peach or darker peach.

Pink

  •  Begin with a clean face.
  •  Apply corrector beginning at the inner corner of the eye and continue underneath close to the lashes, where there is darkness.
  •  Gently blend by pressing with your fingers.
  •  The corrector is complete on the right.

Peach

  •  Begin with a clean face.
  •  Apply corrector at the innermost corner of the eye and underneath to cover the darkest areas. Apply corrector generously, making sure there is enough to block the darkness.
  •  Gently blend and tap with your fingers.
  •  The corrector is complete on the right.

Darker Peach

  •  Begin with a clean face.
  •  Begin at the innermost corner of each eye. This is the deepest, darkest area of the face, so apply the corrector densely.
  •  Blend with your finger and press the corrector into the skin. Never rub or drag your finger across the skin.
  •  The corrector is complete.

Preparing the face for makeup – CORRECTOR APPLICATION for ASIAN EYES

Even if you don’t have a lot of darkness corrector still brightens the eyes.

  •  Begin with a clean face. Note the darkness is not severe.
  •  Cover the entire area with corrector.
  •  Gently blend with your fingers.
  •  Note the difference even when the darkness is subtle.

CORRECTOR BRIGHTENS

Corrector can be pink or peach toned. Make sure it is applied up to the lashes and in the inner corner space between the eye and the bridge of the nose.

  •  Determine whether corrector is needed to counteract deep purple or green coloration under the eye.
  •  If corrector is needed, choose the color according to the directions. Apply corrector using a small concealer brush and starting at the inner eye.
  •  Apply corrector to all areas of darkness.
  •  Gently press the corrector into the skin with your fingers.

Troubleshooting: Corrector or Concealer

If it creases
Using enough powder applied correctly is key. If you skimp, it will end up creasing.
If it’s cakey
The ratio of eye cream to concealer is off.
If it’s too light
Use an extremely light dusting of light bronzing powder to warm up the area.
If it’s not bright enough or if it’s too dark
Try to add a bit of fast-absorbing eye cream, then repeat corrector and concealer.
If the eye makeup transfers to the concealer
Use eye makeup remover, a cotton swab, or a sponge and remove all under-eye product. Start over with eye cream, and let it absorb before applying other eye makeup.

Clean brush between corrector and concealer steps.

Preparing the face for makeup – CONCEALER LIGHTENS

Concealer should be one or two shades lighter than your foundation and yellow in tone to blend as it lightens. Apply after corrector in most cases.

  •  Apply concealer generously under the eyes starting at the recessed area at the innermost corner of each eye.
  •  Cover the entire area below the lower lash line to cover any darkness or redness.
  •  To blend the concealer, gently warm it between your fingers and then press it into the skin.
  • Set the concealer in place with a sheer loose powder.

Preparing the face for makeup – POWDER SETS CONCEALER

Most women can use a yellow-toned, loose powder, but those with extremely fair skin may need a white-toned powder.

  •  Using a brush that fits in the corner of the eye, dust the powder onto the skin.
  •  Brush the powder across the under-eye and sweep off any excess with the brush.
  •  Sweep the powder across the eyelid.
  •  Apply the powder under the brow bone. Repeat two times if necessary.

Preparing the face for makeup – FOUNDATION

Beauty starts with great skin. The right foundation will make you look like you’re not wearing any foundation at all. You’ll just have even-toned, great-looking skin.

The reason we wear foundation is to even out our skin tone and texture. When applied correctly, the result is skin that looks clear and smooth. But, what is most important is that the skin look better than it did without foundation.

Some women shy away from foundation because they associate it with thick pancake makeup that sometimes looks like a mask. But even the strongest makeup should have a natural-looking base.

Formula

Foundations are available in many different formulas. Choose one that is right for your skin and style and has a consistency you like to use. Use the following guidelines to choose your formula.

TINTED MOISTURIZER

For normal/normal-to-dry skin. Gives a sheer, light-weight coverage and is an alternative to foundation. Provides a totally natural look. Great for weekends.

TINTED FACE BALM

For extra-dry skin. Provides sheer coverage. Intensively hydrates and gives skin a dewy finish. Balm actually plumps the skin and reduces the appearance of fine

STICK FOUNDATION

For all skin types except oily. Provides easy spot coverage and is also buildable for medium to full coverage. Best foundation for photography.

LIQUID FOUNDATION

For dry to extra-dry skin. Hydrates and smoothes, providing medium to full coverage.

MOISTURIZING COMPACT

For dry to extra-dry skin. Hydrating formulas provide medium to full coverage.

WHIPPED FOUNDATION

For combination skin and great for skin with texture. Balances the skin by hydrating dry areas and absorbing oil in the T-zone. Provides medium to full coverage.

OIL-FREE LIQUID FOUNDATION

For oily skin. For combination skin in the summer. Absorbs oil and smoothes while providing light to medium coverage.

OIL-FREE CREAM FOUNDATION

For normal-to-oily skin. Absorbs oil, providing medium to full coverage. A good choice to cover acne and large pores.

OIL-FREE POWDER COMPACT

For oily skin. Provides medium to full coverage. Because of the portable packaging, compact foundations are great for touch-ups.

MINERAL POWDERS

Suggested for very oily skin. (Be careful when choosing color. Oily skin can change color of powders, and they may appear dry and pasty.)

Preparing the face for makeup – Finding the Perfect Shade

Once you have decided on the right formula of foundation, you need to find the right shade. The correct shade will disappear on the skin.
Make sure the foundation is yellow-based. Everyone has yellow undertones in their skin. Pink-based foundations look like a mask on most people. Only 1
percent need a pink tone: those who sunburn even in the shade. Foundation should not change the color of the face but simply even out the tone.
Test several shades of foundation on the side of your face, between the nose and the side of the cheek. Make a stripe of foundation in the preferred formula from cheek to jawline, gently blending into the skin. Also test a shade lighter and a shade darker for comparison. The correct shade will disappear.
Double-check the selected color on forehead. Sometimes women have darker skin on the forehead, and the foundation shade that matches here will work better for the whole face.
Always test foundation in natural light. Walk to a window or doorway to check the match. The swatch that disappears into the skin is the right shade. Do not test foundation on the hand or arm, as the face is rarely the same color as the rest of the body.
If your skin tone gets darker in the summer or on a vacation, you may need to adjust the foundation tone. Keep a deeper shade of foundation on hand to
accommodate changes in skin tone. It can be blended with your regular foundation if you are between shades or used alone when skin is darkest.
Oily skin sometimes turns foundation darker. Check and adjust accordingly.
Stick foundation that is a shade or two lighter than the skin tone can be used for light under-eye coverage instead of concealer.

Tip

For those with combination skin, foundations are now available with both silica beads, which soak up oil, and lecithin, which hydrates skin. Moisturizers and oil-control lotions can be applied to parts of the face that need it to counterbalance the foundation choice.

Tools

The right makeup tools help you apply foundation quickly and easily, with great-looking results. Sponges, also called makeup wedges, are used with foundation. Makeup can be applied directly to the sponge or face and gently blended into the skin. Some prefer to use a foundation brush. The synthetic bristles of this brush type can be used with all foundation formulas for a smooth and even application. Fingers are the best tool for warming and blending makeup into the skin.

Tips

While sponges are a convenient and sanitary way to apply makeup, they can’t replicate the direct control and warmth of using the fingers and hands. You can use the hands to warm a product before application. Foundation, concealer, lip color, and even pencils spread more easily on the skin if they are at body temperature. Use the fingers to apply makeup for complete control over placement of the product. Always thoroughly clean the hands and nails before applying makeup.

To see the true effect of the foundation, let it settle for a few minutes. Then blend or layer in more foundation in spots where it is needed.

FOUNDATION APPLICATION

To get the even-toned, great-looking skin you want, you need to choose the right color, texture, tools, and formulas. Always begin with a test to choose the color that’s the closest match to your natural skin tone, and then follow the simple steps for proper application.

Troubleshooting: Foundation

Wrong color
Add a layer of darker foundation or darker powder bronzer or face powder to balance the face color. Select the tone properly. Sometimes the skin needs yellow, red, orange, or blue. The face color should match that of the body.

Color doesn’t match neck
Instead of lightening the face, darken the neck with warm bronzer.

Face has a lot of redness
Use a sheer coat of foundation, making sure the skin tone can be seen through it. Use bronzer lightly on the face, neck, and chest to blend.

Orange-peel texture coming through
First try a light moisturizer on your palms to warm it up. Then press it into the skin. Layer with more foundation. If this doesn’t work, take the foundation off.
Greatly hydrate the skin. Wait two minutes and change the foundation formula to work with the skin.

Pasty-looking skin
The color is too light. Check the color following the tips below.

Yellow-looking skin
The color is too dark. Recheck the color on the forehead and cheek. Switch to another color and correct with bronzer. Some women need to use two shades on different parts of the face during different times of the year.

  •  Swipe each shade to choose a color. Gently blend into skin. The correct color will look like your natural skin tone.
  •  Check the color to be sure it matches the forehead.
  •  Begin applying a small amount of foundation around the nose.
  •  Blend the foundation upward into the hairline. Apply foundation all over or only to the parts that need it. Use your fingers to press the foundation into the skin to fully blend.
  •  Use a blemish stick after the foundation to cover red spots or blemishes.

 

 

Moisturizers and sun protection

Moisturizers and sun protection

Moisturizers and sun protection, the most important skincare step is ensuring hydration. Skin’s tone and flexibility depends on the presence of water in the underlying tissues—water drawn from humidity in the air and moisture added to the skin’s surface. Oil is the skin’s natural protectant, preventing moisture from leaving the skin. Oil in the skin functions as a defensive barrier. It smoothes the texture and helps to maintain skin-cell health. When oil glands overproduce, the skin appears greasy, and when the glands underproduce, the skin becomes dehydrated and flaky. Adding moisture to the skin helps maintain skin firmness, smoothness, softness, and luminosity.

 

Facial Moisturizers

Moisturizer is the true fountain of youth. Moisturizers form a barrier between the skin and the environment that holds water in the epidermis. They hydrate and plump up the skin so that it looks smooth and bright. The right moisturizer will enhance the look, feel, and health of the skin and can even help temporarily eliminate fine lines and wrinkles. Moisturizers can also protect the skin from pollution, debris, and weather. The right skincare products help makeup go on smoothly, properly adhere to the skin, and last longer.

There are two types of facial moisturizers. Oil-in-water emulsions usually contain humectants, such as glycerin, which attract water. Added water from the environment is wonderful for the skin. The second category of moisturizer is the water-in-oil emulsion. These creams and lotions work by forming a water-trapping barrier on the skin surface. Look for the ingredient sodium hyaluronate, which locks in moisture and prevents it from leaving the skin. Humectants are often added to these products as well.

The major difference between moisturizing products is the ratio of water to oil. Even products labeled oil-free sometimes have small amounts of oil in them. You can sometimes find the ratio of water to oil on the label of a moisturizer.

PETROLEUM-BASED MOISTURIZERS are very effective at locking in moisture. They can, however, block pores and feel sticky.

VEGETABLE OILS are sometimes used as the base for moisturizers but in general are not as effective as mineral oils or animal fats.

INGREDIENTS SUCH AS VITAMIN E, COLLAGEN, PROTEINS, HORMONES, PLACENTAL EXTRACTS, AND AMINO ACIDS are sometimes added to moisturizing products.

VITAMIN A DERIVATIVES are added to anti-aging products.

CHEMICALLY ENHANCED products contain agents such as urea, glycolic acid, or lactic acid. They are formulated to improve the moisture-retaining ability of the moisturizer and are often recommended for dry skin.

FRAGRANCES are added to products to provide a pleasant aroma and to mask the odor of other ingredients.

 

All skin types benefit from the use of some type of moisturizer.

DRY SKIN needs a heavier, oil-based moisturizer that will absorb completely into the skin, leaving it feeling soft and supple. Oils are more effective than creams at preventing water evaporation. Look for the ingredients urea or propylene glycol, chemicals that keep skin moist.

NORMAL SKIN has a healthy moisture balance. Water-based moisturizers containing lightweight oils, such as acetyl alcohol, or silicone-derived ingredients, will help maintain healthy, normal skin.

OILY AND COMBINATION SKIN types benefit most from an oil-free, water-based moisturizer. Oil-free products are made from synthetic chemicals and contain little to no oils or animal fat. If you have oily skin, use all moisturizers sparingly. Look for products labeled “noncomedogenic,” which means they are formulated to prevent clogged pores. Test moisturizers to find one that leaves a matte finish on the skin. This will minimize shine and the appearance of large pores.

 

Tips for Moisturizing

Use a fast-absorbing eye cream under concealer to help skin look smooth, not crepey. The skin around the eyes is more delicate than the rest of the face. For puffiness and wrinkles under the eye, try using a richer formula containing shea butter or beeswax at night.

If your skin is very dry and dehydrated, use a super-rich moisturizing balm with ingredients like petrolatum, glycerin, or shea butter for better texture and for smoother application of foundation. Warm the balm in your palms before applying it to your face.

Layer different textures of moisturizers to achieve maximum results. For instance, use an absorbing cream with balms or oils.

If you have oily skin, try using an oil-control lotion on the forehead and nose to tone down shine. Oil-free formulas hydrate while helping to control overactive oil glands. Foundation applied over the lotion will hold better, too.

For dry, chapped, or cracked lips, apply a balm formulated specifically for lips.

Try patting a moisturizing balm onto your cheeks after completing your makeup. It will give a glow to your face and help the foundation look natural.

To create your own sheer, tinted moisturizer, mix face lotion with foundation.

These tests will help you to determine the ratio of oil to water in a moisturizing product.

Apply moisturizer to your skin. If the skin under the moisturizer is warm, there is a greater percentage of oil in the product. If the area is cool, there is a greater percentage of water. The science behind this is that evaporation cools, and water evaporates. Oil does not evaporate and therefore traps heat in the body.

Put a small amount of moisturizer on a tissue, and hold it over a lightbulb. Products with higher oil content will melt. The wider the area of melted oil, the greater the percentage of oil in the moisturizer.

SENSITIVE SKIN needs a moisturizer that does not contain fragrances or dyes and is designed for this skin type.

EXTRA DRY AND MATURE SKIN requires more moisture. Nourishing oils, dense creams, and balms are formulated specifically for both these skin types. These products help to temporarily plump up the skin, making it appear smoother and reducing the appearance of fine lines. Look for petrolatum-based moisturizers that also contain ingredients such as lactic acid or alpha hydroxy acids, which help to prevent dry skin.

Specially formulated moisturizers are needed for the area under and around the eye. The skin surrounding the eyes has smaller pores, is thinner than the rest of the facial skin, and is more sensitive. It is important to keep this area as hydrated as possible. Products on the market target specific problems. Before you go shopping for an eye cream, decide whether you want an eye cream that hydrates and prepares for concealer, or an overnight cream that is rich and emollient. Anti-wrinkle or anti-aging creams contain caffeine, retinol, alpha hydroxy acids, or vitamin C. Anti-darkening creams contain vitamin K or hydroquinone. Also decide if you want two different creams, one for night and the other for day. To avoid possible irritation of the eye, look for an eye cream that does not contain fragrance and has a pH close to that of tears (about 7.5).

Lips are often the first area of the face to wrinkle. Dry and chapped lips are a clear sign that you need to drink more water. While hydrating the body is the first step toward beautiful lips, there are many products that help keep them plump and smooth.

For personal use, have on hand two facial moisturizers, one lighter than the other. On those days when the skin needs more moisture, apply the lighter product first, and then layer the heavier moisturizer over that. Also find a moisturizing product formulated specifically for the under-eye area, lip balm, body moisturizer, and sunscreen. As your skin changes in response to lifestyle, season, or climate, you can treat it with the right hydrating product. Makeup artists carry a full range of moisturizers in their kits.

 

Moisturizer Application

Once the face is thoroughly cleansed and toned, and while it is still slightly damp, apply moisturizer using a clean sponge or your fingers. (Note: dense balms will work only on dry skin.) If you are using your hands to apply any makeup products, always wash them thoroughly so you don’t transfer oils and bacteria to your face. Bacteria on the hands or makeup tools often cause breakouts.

Use about a nickel-size amount of moisturizer. Warm the balm or moisturizer between your palms.

With firm, upward strokes, gently press the product into the skin until it is completely absorbed.

 

Smoking is always a horrible idea

It severely damages your skin and lungs and is a common cause of cancer. It makes you smell and robs color from your skin and lips. Smoke breaks down the skin’s defenses, depriving it of the oxygen it needs for healthy cell renewal. Repeated exposure to cigarette smoke causes the skin to lose its luster and tone and to wrinkle. Smokers often develop permanent wrinkles around the lips. Smoking is the one lifestyle choice for which balance and moderation are not options.

 

Sun Protection

Lines, dark spots, and uneven skin texture are not the inevitable effects of aging but are often the result of too much sun exposure. Overexposure to sunlight can also cause cancer. Too much sun is the skin’s worst enemy. The only way to prevent premature aging and skin damage due to overexposure is to stay out of the midday sun when possible, wear protective clothing and hats, and always use the proper sunscreen.

Three types of radiation reach us from the sun. Visible and infrared light rays provide light and warmth. Ultraviolet rays are harmful. The sun’s ultraviolet (UV) light falls into three wavelength bands: UVA, UVB, and UVC.

UVA RAYS have the longest wavelength and remain high in intensity all day. They penetrate through the epidermis and deep into the dermis, damaging newer cells. UVA rays are very dangerous and can cause cancers and sensitivity reactions.

UVB RAYS have a midrange wavelength, and like UVA rays penetrate the epidermis and continue into the dermis. These rays break down the organization of skin cells, causing wrinkles and broken blood vessels. They are highest in intensity from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. and near the equator. Glass protects skin from UVB rays.

UVC RAYS have the shortest wavelength and are usually absorbed by the ozone layer. They are absorbed by the epidermis and can be very dangerous in large amounts. As the ozone layer thins, attention will need to be paid to these UVC rays.

 

Tips for Protecting Your Skin from the Damaging Effects of the Sun

Whenever possible, stay out of the sun for long periods of time, especially between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m., when rays are strongest.

Protect exposed skin all year round. Wear sunscreen with an SPF (sun protection factor) of 15 to 30, depending on the season and length of exposure. Long-sleeved shirts and wide-brimmed hats provide some protection. Remember, the sun penetrates through loosely woven and wet clothing very easily, so wear sunscreen even when covered.

Avoid tanning beds. There is no such thing as safe tanning.

Wear sunglasses that wrap around the eyes and have 100 percent UV-blocking lenses. Most sunscreens are too harsh to use on the sensitive area around the eyes.

Select a sunscreen that protects against both UVA and UVB rays, sometimes labeled as broad-spectrum sunscreen. Many popular sunscreens will not adequately protect your skin from these harmful rays.

Apply liberally—about one teaspoon of sunscreen to your face and at least one ounce (about a shot glass) to your body each day. The face and hands are high-risk areas for cancer, so apply liberally to those areas.

If you have sensitive skin, use a cream-based product, and avoid sunscreens with tretinoin (Retin-A, Stieva-A, Retisol-A, Rejuva-A, Renova, Vitamin A acid), which dries the skin. Look for a fragrance-free, hypoallergenic sunscreen if you have any allergies to skin products.

Waterproof and water-resistant sunscreens are good if you are involved in swimming or sports. Waterproof products work for ninety minutes; protection with water-resistant sunscreens lasts thirty minutes. They need to be applied/reapplied twenty minutes before entering the water so that the product can bond with the skin.

Those who work out of doors might need frequent application of a sunscreen with a high SPF.

UVA rays are reflected from all light surfaces, including water, sand, snow, ice, and even concrete.

Children younger than six months old should not wear sunscreen but instead be covered and kept out of the sun.

Exposure to the sun produces the formation of molecules in the skin called free radicals. These molecules attack healthy skin cells, damaging and interfering with the production of new collagen. With the destruction of collagen fibers and hyaluronic acid molecules—both of which are responsible for preserving the volume and resiliency of the skin—skin loses its firmness, resulting in wrinkles. The sun can also damage the eyes and affect the immune system. UV rays can damage white blood cells and Langerhans cells, both essential to the skin’s ability to fight viruses and other diseases.

For more information and to learn of new developments in sunscreen protection, these Web sites, listed recently in a New York Times article, might prove helpful.

 

Environmental Working Group (lists products with UVA protection) www.cosmeticsdatabase.com

 

Sunscreen Application

Apply sunscreen at least once a day, and use an adequate amount of the product.

Clean the skin before application.

Apply to cool, dry skin twenty to thirty minutes before exposure. Cool, dry skin allows sunscreen to bind effectively. When sunscreen is applied to warm skin, the open pores can become irritated, and rashes can develop.

Two applications help cover any missed spots.

Apply moisturizer and makeup over sunscreen.

Reapply during the day, depending on your rate of perspiration and the amount of sun exposure you get.

Tip

Use the equivalent of a shot glass of sunscreen — that’s two tablespoons — to cover skin from head to toe.

 

Benefits of cleansing and toning the face

Benefits of cleansing and toning the face, the purpose of cleansing is to remove bacteria, makeup, and the dirt, sweat, and oil that build up on the skin each day. At least once a day, the skin needs to be cleaned with a formula that does not strip the skin of all its natural oils.

Makeup Remover Options

EYE MAKEUP REMOVERS remove eye makeup quickly and easily without harsh tugging or wiping. Look for oil-free, water-based formulas gentle enough for all skin types.

LONG-WEAR MAKEUP REMOVERS quickly and gently remove long-wearing and waterproof makeup. Look for products safe for contact lens wearers. These can generally be used for removal of lipstick and mascara or eyeliners.

CREAM CLEANSERS also work. It’s a great benefits of cleansing  the skin. See below.

Cleanser Options

Familiarity with these options will allow you to make the right choice based on your skin condition and type. Look for ingredients like wheat germ oil, which cleans without stripping, and glycerin, which attracts moisture to the skin’s surface.

SOAP will deeply clean the skin and leave it feeling thoroughly cleansed and refreshed. Look for glycerin or cold cream soaps formulated specifically for the face. Glycerin creates a moisture cushion on the skin and a soft feel. Soap is best for oily skin types. Do not use body or bath soap, especially antibacterial soap. It will strip the skin and leave it feeling tight and dry. It’s a huge benefits of cleansing.

GEL CLEANSERS typically foam or lather during use. These cleansers are formulated to dissolve oil buildup and fight blemish-causing bacteria without stripping the skin. They are best for oily or combination skin types that are prone to breakouts.

CREAM CLEANSERS are lightweight, water-based formulas that clean without leaving residue. These products contain oils and emollients along with cleansing ingredients and are recommended for normal to dry skin types.

OIL CLEANSERS work best on the driest of skins.

BALM CLEANSERS condition and moisturize the skin while cleansing. They leave a moisturizing cushion on the skin and are suitable for all skin types except oily.

EXFOLIATING CLEANSERS this is another great benefits of cleansing, sometimes contain alpha hydroxy acids, such as glycolic or salicylic acid, and can be used several times a week to encourage cell turnover and dead skin removal. These products are gentle enough for all skin types. Some exfoliating cleansers contain beads or grains that loosen dead surface skin cells. These manual exfoliants should be used twice a week in place of the daily cleanser.

TREATMENT MASKS provide intensive supplements to the regular cleansing regimen. Oily and blemish-prone skin will benefit from the application of a clay mask, which helps to draw out impurities, reduce blackheads, and dry up excess oil. Dry skin, or any skin type that’s been exposed to strong sun or wind, can be rejuvenated with a creamy hydrating mask. Masks containing cucumber, chamomile, aloe, or calendula are naturally soothing and good for irritated skin.

STEAMING THE SKIN helps remove impurities, stimulates circulation, and opens the pores. Herbs, such as lavender or thyme, added to a steam treatment stimulate the skin. Steaming can be helpful for all skin types.

MASSAGE stimulates circulation and helps to relax the facial muscles, giving the face a smooth and lifted look.

Toners

Toners stimulate circulation in the skin, remove any remaining dead skin cells or greasiness, and give the skin a smooth texture. Toners can be helpful for those who have very oily skin or who wear lots of makeup. Use a toner after cleaning the skin or as an interim cleaner to remove dirt and oil. During the summer, toners can be especially useful, as the skin is more oily and tends to attract more dirt and bacteria. Toners also help to restore the skin’s natural pH balance.

While no cosmetic product can change the size of your pores, toners and astringents can make them appear smaller. These products work by very slightly irritating the skin, causing it to swell, making pores less noticeable.

To apply toner, pat the skin with a cotton ball soaked in the product of choice. You can also spray toner onto the face. Of course, cold water can just be splashed on the face instead.

Toner Options

Alcohol and water are the major ingredients in many skin fresheners, astringents, and toners. Other ingredients can include witch hazel, glycerin, rose water, vinegar, alum, boric acid, menthol, camphor, and other herbs. The major difference in the products is the amount of alcohol they contain. Alcohol strips the naturally occurring oils skin needs to be healthy, so look for a product without alcohol, especially if you have dry skin.

COLD TREATMENT with a splash of cold water is the best toner and can be used by those with any skin type. It closes the pores and improves the skin’s texture.

SKIN FRESHENERS are very mild and contain water, such humectants as glycerin or rose water, and very little alcohol (less than 10 percent). Humectants help prevent the evaporation of moisture from the skin. These products are very gentle and are especially good for sensitive, dry, and normal skin.

SKIN TONICS are stronger, containing water, humectants, and up to 20 percent alcohol. Tonics are for normal, combination, or oily skin.

ASTRINGENTS contain water, humectants, up to 60 percent alcohol, and antiseptics. These are drying and only suitable for very oily skin or for application to specific problem areas. Witch hazel is an astringent.

Removing Makeup & Cleansing the Skin

Secure hair off the face with a headband or elastic.

When wearing makeup, it is often necessary to cleanse using a multistep process. Start with a makeup remover or tissue-off cream to dissolve much of the makeup, avoiding the eye area.

The skin around the eyes is especially delicate and can be easily irritated. There are makeup removers specifically formulated for this area. Take a cotton pad dampened with the product, and rest or press it gently around the closed eye. Wipe lightly. Do not tug or pull on the eye or surrounding skin.

Apply cleanser to the entire face. With a cleanser appropriate to your skin type, massage the product into your skin with an upward circular motion. Include the neck, under the ear lobes, and the chin.

Rinse the entire face, including the eye area, with warm—not hot—water.

Dry the face with the softest natural-fiber towels you can find. Pat the face dry. Rubbing or hard wiping creates small abrasions on the skin surface, causing irritation, redness, and even swelling.

 

 

How does the skin works

How does the skin works. Skin, few people have naturally perfect skin. With some knowledge, experience, good diet, and exercise, it is possible to greatly improve the appearance of the skin, we spoke  about that in last post, you can read here

The condition of the skin changes from day to day and season to season. Hormonal fluctuations, stress, pregnancy, medication, travel, and seasonal changes are only a few of the factors that can cause skin to act up. If you learn to recognize the various skin conditions, you will be able to choose the right cleansing options and moisturizers.

How Does the Skin Works

The skin is composed of three layers: a deep layer called the hypodermis, a middle layer called the dermis, and a surface layer called the epidermis. The epidermis gives immediate, visual clues to the condition and health of the skin, while the dermis determines how the skin responds and changes with age. The hypodermis, the deepest layer, contains a layer of fat, blood vessels, and nerves.

Skin’s middle layer, the dermis, is composed mostly of collagen and elastin, which are proteins that give skin structure, strength, and flexibility. As we age, collagen and elastin production diminishes. The results show up on the face as a loss of firmness, rougher texture, more obvious wrinkles, and sagging.

Hair follicles, nerves, blood vessels, and sebaceous glands are also part of the dermis. Sebaceous glands produce sebum. This oily substance moves through the hair shaft to the top layer of the skin, where it covers the epidermis and provides a protective barrier against moisture loss. Too much sebum results in oily skin. The outermost layer of skin, the epidermis, is several layers deep. Basal cells are created in the lowest layer and then migrate through a hardened layer to the stratum corneum, from which they fall off the body. The skin continually sloughs off the dead cells and grows new living cells. It takes about a month for a live basal cell to move to the top layer of the epidermis. As the cell moves toward the surface of the skin, it loses moisture and oxygen content.

On the surface of the epidermis is a layer of oil transported from the dermis by the hair follicles that forms a natural barrier, helping the skin to retain water. Harsh and scented cleansing products, exposure to chemical and biological pollution in the environment, and poor diet can remove this protective oil-based layer from the skin. This layer can be replenished with moisturizer.

Moisturizers work in several ways. First, they fill in the spaces between the relatively dry, or cornified, cells of the epidermis, making the skin feel and appear smoother. They also create a barrier on the skin, helping the skin retain water. The oil content in moisturizers works with the protective lipid coating of the skin to partially protect the skin from the air. Care must be taken in the selection and use of moisturizing products, as they make a huge difference in how the skin works. Hydration is the key to smooth, even skin, and moisturization is the external way to achieve it.

ANALYSIS OF THE SKIN

The following descriptions will help you recognize skin conditions and make decisions about skincare products.

Normal

Analysis

  • Comfortable-feeling
  • Smooth, even texture with small pores
  • Cheeks are the driest area, but not excessively so
  • May experience some shine and larger pores on the forehead, nose, or chin
  • Water and oil content in this skin is balanced

Care

Normal skin needs routine cleansing with a foaming cleanser, exfoliation twice a week, moisturization with lightweight lotions, and the use of a sunscreen to keep it healthy. A diet rich in vitamins A, C, and E helps keep skin smooth and soft. Sufficient fluid intake is important to maintain hydration and rid the body of toxins.

Dry/Extra Dry

Analysis

  • Feels tight after washing
  • May look dry or flaky
  • Feels rough and uneven; dehydrated
  • May be sensitive
  • Pores are small—almost invisible
  • Shows fine lines faster than other skin types

Care

Dry skin requires special care. A lifestyle that includes a healthy diet with foods high in water content, such as fruits and vegetables, and at least eight glasses of water a day keeps this skin type hydrated. Caffeine and alcohol cause dehydration, so limit intake to two cups or glasses a day. Using richer cleansers, limiting sun exposure, and using a good moisturizer can protect your skin’s natural oils. Layering different textures of moisturizer can do wonders to hydrate the skin.

Begin with lightweight face oil, and then layer a richer cream over that. Night creams with alpha hydroxy acids (AHA) help remove the dry, dead skin while moisturizing the new. Air-conditioning and heating create dry environments. Correct this in your home by using humidifiers.

Self-Test: Skin Analysis

– Look at your own clean, unmoisturized skin in the mirror. Is the overall texture flaky (dry), shiny (oily), or smooth (normal)?
– How does your skin feel after you wash it with your current cleansing regimen? Tightness through the forehead is an indication of dry skin.
– How does your skin normally look by midday? Is there oil breakthrough or dryness even though you have moisturized?
– What lifestyle factors are influencing your skin’s current condition: stress? hormonal fluctuations? sun exposure? diet?
– Does your skin have noticeable sun damage? How are you protecting yourself against the sun?

An accurate skin analysis will help you determine the most effective cleansing, hydration, and makeup products for your skin type and condition. However, when problem skin shows no improvement or worsens, see a dermatologist.

How does the skin works: Oily Skin

Analysis

  • Oily skin is shiny, especially through the T-zone (the forehead, nose, and chin); it is a condition caused by overactive sebaceous, or oil-producing, glands.
  • May have large, visible pores
  • Frequent breakouts
  • Few signs of aging, such as fine lines

Care

Management of oily skin and the prevention of breakouts requires a healthy diet and a regular skincare routine. Cleanse the face at least twice a day to prevent dirt accumulation and to keep pores open. Use an alcohol-free astringent to remove excess oil. Use oil-free moisturizers to keep the skin from overdrying.

Combination Skin

Analysis

  • Oily through the T-zone
  • Dry cheeks or spot dehydration
  • Larger pores on the forehead, nose, and chin

Care

Care for this skin type requires regular cleansing, toning, and moisturizing of the oily areas and the use of a milder cleanser and denser moisturizer for the dry areas. Moisturizing products containing AHA will benefit this skin type.

Sensitive Skin

Analysis

  • Can range from dry to oily
  • Easily irritated by cosmetics, moisturizers, and cleansers
  • Sensitive and prone to redness
  • Itchy or blotchy

Care

Sensitive skin requires mild, nonperfumed cleansing products. Use an alcohol-free toner formulated for sensitive skin. Also, use cleansers and moisturizers specifically formulated for this type of skin.

Misleading Skin Conditions

Don’t be fooled. The skin’s condition can be quickly impacted by changes in environment, health, diet, and even current product choices for cleansing, toning, moisturizing, or makeup. There are many skin conditions that can hide your actual skin type. Redness, dryness, or flaking can be caused by a medical condition or medication. Skincare products can be overused, causing oily skin to become dry or flaky. Dry skin that is overmoisturized can appear greasy. Redness and irritation can be caused by low-grade allergies to cleansing, moisturizing, or makeup products, necessitating a change to gentler products.

 

Learning the basics of skincare

Beauty starts with smooth, healthy, glowing skin. Anyone can learn to become a skincare expert by understanding how lifestyle impacts the condition of the skin, Knowing how skin works, How to analyze skin conditions, How to identify skin types, How to properly care for skin, Knowing skincare ingredients and how they work in order to select and use the appropriate products.

Lifestyle

Beautiful skin begins with a healthy lifestyle. While heredity may determine how your skin looks, behaves, and ages, you can improve it by taking good care of yourself. Skincare basics include eating the right foods, drinking plenty of water, exercising, getting enough sleep, protecting your skin from the sun, not smoking, and limiting your intake of both caffeine and alcohol.

Nutrition

The health of your skin begins with good nutrition. New, living cells continually replace the dead cells on the surface of the skin. The growth of new cells is dependent on vitamins, minerals, and hydration. Eat at least five servings of fresh fruits and vegetables each day.

Remember to look for the “ACE” vitamins: A to help prevent aging, C to promote clarity, and E to protect against the environment. Vitamins A and C are most important for healthy skin and are plentiful in fruits and vegetables. Vitamin A is found in carrots, spinach, watercress, broccoli, sweet potatoes, and melons. Peppers, strawberries, oranges, grapefruit, and leafy greens all contain vitamin C. Also include whole-grain foods, nuts, dairy, fish, and beans in your diet. They are all foods rich in zinc, which promotes healing and reduces inflammation in the body.

Biotin is another nutrient needed for healthy skin, hair, and nails. It is sometimes identified as vitamin H and is part of the vitamin B complex. Foods such as peanut butter, whole grains, eggs, and liver contain biotin and can help prevent dermatitis and hair loss.

There are many advantages to taking your vitamins in food rather than in pill form. When you eat, you are never getting single, isolated nutrients. For instance, a bowl of leafy greens provides an abundance of several important vitamins, such as B, K, and E, as well as fiber and antioxidants. The fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains that provide fiber also naturally deliver vitamins and minerals and are low in calories. It is virtually impossible to consume dangerous levels of any vitamins or minerals through diet alone.

Your diet has a direct impact on not only your overall health and how you feel but also on how you look. Certain nutrients in particular are important for maintaining healthy skincare, hair, and nails. Think of them as your beauty vitamins.

VITAMIN A

Antioxidant essential for the growth and renewal of new skin cells. Topically applied, may boost collagen production and promote skin cell turnover. Egg yolks, dairy

VITAMIN B

Increases fatty acids in the skin, promoting exfoliation and firmness. Yeast, eggs, liver, vegetables

VITAMIN C

Building block of collagen, the protein that gives skin its structure, tone, and elasticity. Citrus fruits, broccoli, peppers, berries, tomatoes

VITAMIN D

Essential for the development of skin cells.
Egg yolks, salmon, fortified milk, and other dairy products

VITAMIN E

Antioxidant that helps build and maintain healthy skin tissue. Wheat germ, leafy greens, nuts, whole grains

FAT

Fat is also an important nutrient for the skincare and the health of the whole body. It is necessary for supple skin and soft, shiny hair. Incorporate unsaturated fats, such as the monounsaturated fats found in olive oil and avocado, with omega-3 fats, found in fatty fish and some seeds, into your
daily diet.

Keep these healthy foods on hand for satisfying between-meal snacking:

  • Almonds
  • Plain, low-fat yogurt
  • String cheese
  • Chocolate protein powder
  • Protein bars
  • Low-fat ricotta cheese with a dash of vanilla
  • Hard-boiled eggs
  • Water with a bit of unsweetened cranberry extract or lemon juice

Our bodies are 80 percent water. Without sufficient hydration, the skin cells become dry and flaky. To keep the body, including the skin, hydrated, eat foods with a high water content, such as fruits, vegetables, and clear soups, and drink at least eight glasses of water a day. It is important to limit your intake of coffee and other drinks containing caffeine, as they are diuretics that remove water from the body and block the absorption of vitamins and minerals.

Exercise

Exercise is a skincare essential. Raising the heart rate through vigorous exercise increases blood flow, brings more oxygen to the skin, and cleanses impurities from the body through sweat. Just twenty to thirty minutes of exercise a day is enough to help boost your immune system, reduce stress, lower blood pressure, strengthen your heart, build stronger bones, increase your energy level, and improve your mood. Ideally, you want to do a mix of aerobic exercise and strength training. Aerobic exercise helps get the blood flowing, so take a walk, run, or swim regularly. With regular exercise, you build lean muscle mass and raise your metabolism.

Since the metabolism slows with age, exercise is fundamental to weight management.

Sleep

Sleep is the time when the body’s cells have a chance to repair and regenerate. Sleep deprivation stresses all of the body’s systems, including the skin, and can result in headaches, irritability, lack of energy, or the inability to focus. The skin becomes less elastic and prone to outbreaks of acne or rashes.

Tip

Smile, be positive, breathe, and take a vacation once in a while.

Sun

Excess sun exposure is skin’s number-one enemy. It causes premature aging, including wrinkles, loss of elasticity, and hyperpigmentation. Worse, overexposure often causes deadly forms of skin cancer. Wear a broad-spectrum sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 15 in the winter and 30 in the summer.

Smoking

Smoking also causes the skin to age prematurely. Nicotine impairs the blood vessels that provide skin with both oxygen and nutrients and rid the skin of impurities.

It eventually robs the skin of oxygen, causing it to look dull and gray. With low levels of oxygen, the skin loses elasticity, which leads to sagging and wrinkling.

Alcohol

Skin problems can be caused by excessive alcohol intake. Alcohol can cause allergic reactions, such as hives and rashes. Some people have allergic reactions to salicylates, which occur in such foods as berries, bananas, beans, grapes, and wine. If a rash appears after you eat these foods, it is likely that beer and wine will also cause outbreaks.

Stress

Stress often shows up on the skin. Stress-related hormonal fluctuations can cause adult acne and other skin problems. While healthy eating and exercise habits help to combat the symptoms of anxiety and stress, finding mechanisms to deal with the underlying causes of stress is important.

Tips

Drinking eight to ten glasses of water a day will help flush out toxins and keep all skin types clear.
Drink one glass of water each time you have a beverage that contains alcohol or caffeine.